Data corruption can occur as a result of power surges, viruses, faulty hardware and unexpected shut down. When there is corrupt data on the drive, your computer may become slugging and unresponsive, Windows updates may stop working and your computer may display the dreaded BSOD (Blue Screen of Death) error. If you suspect that your PC has corrupted data, follow these steps to help clean it up:
First, make sure that the computer is clean. Make sure that any malware is removed before proceeding by using a good antivirus and antimalware (even an anti-rootkit is highly recommended).
Check for Disk Errors
Next, check for disk errors. Open a command prompt and execute the following command: chkdsk.
Allow it to complete. If the check disk utility finds any errors, run the same utility along with the repair option. To do this, type chkdsk /r from the command prompt. When prompted, select Y to allow the utility to run after a restart and restart your computer.
The check disk utility will attempt to fix any data corruption on your hard drive. It may take a long time, but your must allow it to finish.
Repair Operating System Files
To make sure that your operating system files are intact, execute the SFC (Scan For Changes) utility. This will check the operating system files and restore them to their original state if necessary. To do this, open a command prompt and execute the command: SFC /Scannow.
If the above steps do not fix the problem, you can re-image Windows without erasing your data.
For Windows 8/8.1/10 and Server 2012/2016 users, open a command prompt and execute the following command:
DISM.exe /Online /Cleanup-image /Restorehealth
Note: DISM uses the Internet to download the necessary repair files. If your computer does not have Internet access, insert the installation media in your CD/DVD drive and execute the following command instead:
DISM.exe /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth /Source:C:\RepairSource\Windows /LimitAccess
Note: replace the C:\RepairSource\Windows placeholder with the location of your repair source (DVD's letter or Network Share's letter).
DISM creates a log file (%windir%/Logs/CBS/CBS.log) that captures any issues that the tool found or fixed. %windir% is the folder in which Windows is installed. For example, the %windir% folder is C:\Windows.
If you have Windows Vista or Windows 7, you can download and execute the Microsoft System Update Readiness tool from one of the links below:
- x86-based (32-bit) versions of Windows 7 SP1 and Windows 7
- x64-based (64-bit) versions of Windows 7 SP1 and Windows 7
- x64-based (64-bit) versions of Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1
- x86-based (32-bit) versions of Windows Vista SP2 and Windows Vista SP1
- x64-based (64-bit) versions of Windows Vista SP2 and Windows Vista SP1
- x86-based (32-bit)versions of Windows Server 2008 SP2
- x64-based (64-bit) versions of Windows Server 2008 SP2
For more information, see KB 947821.