The IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi / WLAN standards set the attributes for the different channels that may be used.
These attributes enable different Wi-Fi modules to talk to each other and effectively set up a WLAN.
To ensure that WLAN solutions operate satisfactorily, parameters such as the RF signal centre frequencies, channel numbers and the bandwidths must all be set.
Wi-Fi is aimed at use within unlicensed spectrum. This enables users to access the radio spectrum without the need for the regulations and restrictions that might be applicable elsewhere. The downside is that this spectrum is also shared by many other users and as a result the system has to be resilient to interference.
There are a number of unlicensed spectrum bands in a variety of areas of the radio spectrum. Often these are referred to as ISM bands – Industrial, Scientific and Medical, and they carry everything from microwave ovens to radio communications.
Many of these bands, including he two used for Wi-Fi are global allocations, although local restrictions may apply for some aspects of their use.
The main bands used for carrying Wi-Fi are those in the table below:
802.11 systems and bands
There are several different 802.11 variants in use. Different 802.11 variants use different bands. A summary of the bands used by the 802.11 systems is given below:
2.4 GHz 802.11 channels
There is a total of fourteen channels defined for use by Wi-Fi 802.11 for the 2.4 GHz ISM band. Not all of the channels are allowed in all countries: 11 are allowed by the FCC and used in what is often termed the North American domain, and 13 are allowed in Europe where channels have been defined by ETSI. The WLAN / Wi-Fi channels are spaced 5 MHz apart (with the exception of a 12 MHz spacing between the last two channels).
The 802.11 WLAN standards specify a bandwidth of 22 MHz and channels are on a 5 MHz incremental step. Often nominal figures for the channel bandwidth of 20 MHz are often given. The 20 / 22 MHz bandwidth and channel separation of 5 MHz means that adjacent channels overlap and signals on adjacent channels will interfere with each other.
The 22 MHz channel bandwidth holds for all standards even though 802.11b WLAN standard can run at variety of speeds: 1, 2, 5.5, or 11 Mbps and the newer 802.11g standard can run at speeds up to 54 Mbps. The differences occur in the RF modulation scheme used, but the WLAN channels are identical across all of the applicable 802.11 standards.
When using 802.11 Wi-Fi to provide WLAN solutions for offices, general use hotspots, or for any WLAN applications, it is necessary to ensure that parameters such as the channels are correctly set to ensure the required performance is achieved.
2.4 GHz Wi-Fi channel frequencies
The table given below provides the frequencies for the total of fourteen 802.11 Wi-Fi channels that are available around the globe. Not all of these channels are available for use in all countries.
2.4 GHz WiFi channel overlap and selection
The channels used for WiFi are separated by 5 MHz in most cases but have a bandwidth of 22 MHz. As a result channels overlap and it can be seen that it is possible to find a maximum of three non-overlapping channels.
Therefore if there are adjacent pieces of WLAN equipment that need to work on non-interfering channels, there is only a possibility of three. There are five combinations of available non overlapping channels are given below:
From the diagram above, it can be seen that Wi-Fi channels 1, 6, 11, or 2, 7, 12, or 3, 8, 13 or 4, 9, 14 (if allowed) or 5, 10 (and possibly 14 if allowed) can be used together as sets. Often WiFi routers are set to channel 6 as the default, and therefore the set of channels 1, 6 and 11 is possibly the most widely used.
As some energy spreads out further outside the nominal bandwidth, if only two channels are used, then the further away from each other the better the performance.
It is found that when interference exists, the throughput of the system is reduced. It therefore pays to reduce the levels of interference to improve the overall performance of the WLAN equipment.
With the use of IEEE 802.11n, there is the possibility of using signal bandwidths of either 20 MHz or 40 MHz. When 40 MHz bandwidth is used to gain the higher data throughput, this obviously reduces the number of channels that can be used.
The diagram above shows the 802.11n 40 MHz signals. These signals are designated with their equivalent centre channel numbers.
2.4 GHz WLAN / Wi-Fi Channel availability
In view of the differences in spectrum allocations around the globe and different requirements for the regulatory authorities, not all the WLAN channels are available in every country. The table below provides a broad indication of the availability of the different Wi-Fi channels in different parts of the world.
This chart is only provides a general view, and there may be variations between different countries. For example some countries within the European zone Spain have restrictions on the channels that may be used (France: channels 10 – 13 and Spain channels 10 and 11) use of Wi-Fi and do not allow many of the channels that might be thought to be available, although the position is likely to change.
5 GHz WiFi channels & frequencies
As the 2.4 GHz band becomes more crowded, many users are opting to use the 5 GHz ISM band. This not only provides more spectrum, but it is not as widely used by Wi-Fi as well as many other appliances including items such as microwave ovens, etc.
It will be seen that many of the 5 GHz Wi-Fi channels fall outside the accepted ISM unlicensed band and as a result various restrictions are placed on operation at these frequencies.
Note 1: there are additional regional variations for countries including Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey, etc. Additionally Japan has access to some channels below 5180 MHz.
Note 2: DFS = Dynamic Frequency Selection; TPC = Transmit Power Control; SRD = Short Range Devices 25 mW max power.
As WLAN and Wi-Fi technology develops further new bands will be added to enable sufficient interference bandwidth to be available to ensure the ever increasing requirement for the transfer of high speed data.
The bands allocated to Wi-Fi are generally relatively stable in view of their widespread use, although changes can occur.