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An access control approach in which access is mediated based on attributes associated with subjects (requesters) and the objects to be accessed. Each object and subject has a set of associated attributes, such as location, time of creation, access rights, etc. Access to an object is authorized or denied depending upon whether the required (e.g., policy-defined) correlation can be made between the attributes of that object and of the requesting subject. This is done through a structured language called the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML), which is as easy to read or write as a natural language.

Even known as IT Administrator, he is a member of the organization who is responsible for deploying, maintaining, and securing the organization's IT devices as well as ensuring that deployed devices and their installed software applications conform to the organization's security requirements and providing IT solutions and troubleshooting.

A small Java application that is downloaded by an ActiveX or Java-enabled web browser that can be included in an HTML page, much in the same way an image is included in a page. When you use a Java technology-enabled browser to view a page that contains an applet, the applet's code is transferred to your system and executed by the browser's Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

Computer software that performs a task or set of tasks, such as word processing or drawing. Applications are also referred to as programs. In computing, it is available as a software, which is a set of instructions or code written in a program for executing a task or an operation in a computer. Applications play a vital role in a Computer as it is an end-user program that enables the users to do many things in a system.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange, an encoding system for converting keyboard characters and instructions into the binary number code that the computer understands. In ASCII, every letter, number, and punctuation symbol has a corresponding number, or ASCII code. For example, the character for the number 1 has the code 49, capital letter A has the code 65, and a blank space has the code 32. This encoding system not only lets a computer store a document as a series of numbers, but also lets it share such documents with other computers that use the ASCII system.

Authentication is used by a server when the server needs to know exactly who is accessing their information or site. Authentication is used by a client when the client needs to know that the server is system it claims to be. In authentication, the user or computer has to prove its identity to the server or client. Usually, authentication by a server entails the use of a user name and password. Other ways to authenticate can be through cards, retina scans, voice recognition, and fingerprints. Authentication by a client usually involves the server giving a certificate to the client in which a trusted third party such as Verisign or Thawte states that the server belongs to the entity (such as a bank) that the client expects it to. Authentication does not determine what tasks the individual can do or what files the individual can see. Authentication merely identifies and verifies who the person or system is.

Authorization is a process by which a server, or a general system, determines if the client has permission to use a resource or access a file. Authorization is usually coupled with authentication so that the server/system has some concept of who the client is that is requesting access. The type of authentication required for authorization may vary; passwords may be required in some cases but not in others. In some cases, there is no authorization; any user may be use a resource or access a file simply by asking for it. Most of the web pages on the Internet require no authentication or authorization.

Binary code
The most basic language a computer understands, it is composed of a series of 0s and 1s. The computer interprets the sequence of binary code to form numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and symbols. Along with being the most basic form of code, binary also represents the smallest amount of data that flows through all of the various complex hardware and software systems handling today’s data resources and assets. The smallest amount of data is called a bit, and is represented by either a one or a zero.

The smallest piece of computer information, either the number 0 or 1. In short they are called binary digits.

CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture), developed by NVIDIA, is a parallel computing platform and programming model that makes using a GPU for general purpose computing simple and elegant. In the computer game industry, GPUs are used for graphics rendering, and for game physics calculations (physical effects such as debris, smoke, fire, fluids); examples include PhysX and Bullet. CUDA has also been used to accelerate non-graphical applications in computational biology, cryptography and other fields by an order of magnitude or more.

To find and correct equipment defects or program malfunctions. It usually refers to examining and removing errors from a program's source code and this is done by developers, that will inspect the code searching for the root of the error/s.

Encryption involves the process of transforming data so that it is unreadable by anyone who does not have a decryption key. The Secure Shell (SSH) and Socket Layer (SSL) protocols are usually used in encryption processes. The SSL/TLS drives the secure part of "https://" sites used in e-commerce sites, banking; today almost every web site available on Internet is using SSL/TLS protocol to protect traffic between endpoints. All data in SSL/TLS transactions is encrypted between the client (browser) and the server (web server) before the data is transferred between the two. All data in SSH sessions is encrypted between the client and the server when communicating at the shell. By encrypting the data exchanged between the client and server information like social security numbers, credit card numbers, and home addresses can be sent over the Internet with less risk of being intercepted during transit. Encryption should be used whenever people are giving out personal information to register for something or buy a product. Doing so ensures the person's privacy during the communication. Encryption is also often used when the data returned by the server to the client should be protected, such as a financial statement or test results.

Ephemeral key
Ephemeral means "lasting a very short time." In computing, an ephemeral object can be very useful: for instance, in cryptography an ephemeral key is a cryptographic key used only once and discarded very quickly, so it is generated for each execution of a key- establishment process and that meets other requirements of the key type (e.g., unique to each message or session). In some cases, ephemeral keys are used more than once within a single session (e.g., broadcast applications) where the sender generates only one ephemeral key pair per message, and the private key is combined separately with each recipient’s public key.

A structure used for containing and organizing files, documents and software applications and even sub-folders. In some operating systems, it is called a directory. The term is most commonly used with graphical user interface operating systems. Most operating systems, upon right clicking the folder, provide information on the folder along with its properties. A Folder does not take any space, in size, on hardisks and other storage types, it is only a "virtual location" defined on the file system.

Free Software
Free software is copyright-free software, with no limitations or constraints, but might not be free in the sense that there’s no price attached to it. It can be modified and changed at the will of the user and this means that the user can make changes to the core elements of the program, re-write whatever they want, overwrite things, completely repurpose the program, fork it into new software, etc. This type of software is often called open-source software, or free and open-source software (FOSS).

Software created by people who are willing to give it away for the satisfaction of sharing or knowing they helped to simplify other people's lives. It may be free-standing software, or it may add functionality to existing software. Freeware is a combination of the words "free" and "software" to mean “free software.” The term, therefore, refers to software programs that are 100% free of charge, no kind of fee required.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol for transferring copies of files from one computer to another remote system. An FTP client is a program that allows you to move files between computers. FTP was developed during the 1970s and 1980s to support file sharing on TCP/IP and older networks. The protocol follows the client-server model of communication.

A glitch, in computing, refers to a small and fleeting error in a system that occurs due to unknown causes. While the actual cause of a glitch is unknown, it can potentially cause serious harm to the system, including power failure, temporary loss of service or data loss. There's a glitch in the etymology of glitch - the origins of the word are not known for sure, though it may derive from the Yiddish glitsh, meaning "slippery place."

Graphical User Interface, a system that simplifies selecting computer commands by enabling the user to point to symbols or illustrations (called icons) on the computer screen with a mouse. It is a visual representation of several textual actions presented to the user for easy interaction with the system. The communication is achieved, between user and machine, by interacting with "icons", "interactive text menus" and virtual bidimensional or tridimensional spaces rather than the usual text-based or command-based communication (GUI differs from CLI). While mouse and keyboard are sufficient for desktop computers, they do not work as well for mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets. Therefore, mobile operating systems are designed to use a touchscreen interface. Many mobile devices can now be controlled by spoken commands as well.

Hard copy
A paper printout of what has been prepared on the computer, for example by using a word processing software.

A system for organizing text through links. Most Web pages include hypertext links to other pages at that site, or to other sites on the World Wide Web. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a mouse click, keypress set, or by touching the screen. Apart from text, the term "hypertext" is also sometimes used to describe tables, images, and other presentational content formats with integrated hyperlinks.

Markup Language
A markup language is not a programming language. It's a series of special markings, interspersed with plain text, which if removed or ignored, leave the plain text as a complete whole. Most markup languages are human-readable because the annotations are written in a way to distinguish them from the text itself. Markup languages define the style and structure of a document so that a computer knows how you want that document to appear. Two common markup languages are HTML (HyperText Markup Language), that describes the structure of a web page and XML, that describes a particular type of data. Most markup languages are defined by an outside authority for use by many different people, usually by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium).
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Computer Glossary
A collection of computing terms, for a quick reference and to know a bit more about protocols, acronyms and more computing related words and expressions.
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