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There are currently 82 terms in this directory
ABAC
An access control approach in which access is mediated based on attributes associated with subjects (requesters) and the objects to be accessed. Each object and subject has a set of associated attributes, such as location, time of creation, access rights, etc. Access to an object is authorized or denied depending upon whether the required (e.g., policy-defined) correlation can be made between the attributes of that object and of the requesting subject. This is done through a structured language called the eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML), which is as easy to read or write as a natural language.

Administrator
Even known as IT Administrator, he is a member of the organization who is responsible for deploying, maintaining, and securing the organization's IT devices as well as ensuring that deployed devices and their installed software applications conform to the organization's security requirements and providing IT solutions and troubleshooting.

API
Short for Application Program Interface (API). APIs explains how a program accesses another to transmit data.

Applet
A small Java application that is downloaded by an ActiveX or Java-enabled web browser that can be included in an HTML page, much in the same way an image is included in a page. When you use a Java technology-enabled browser to view a page that contains an applet, the applet's code is transferred to your system and executed by the browser's Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

Application
Computer software that performs a task or set of tasks, such as word processing or drawing. Applications are also referred to as programs. In computing, it is available as a software, which is a set of instructions or code written in a program for executing a task or an operation in a computer. Applications play a vital role in a Computer as it is an end-user program that enables the users to do many things in a system.

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange, an encoding system for converting keyboard characters and instructions into the binary number code that the computer understands. In ASCII, every letter, number, and punctuation symbol has a corresponding number, or ASCII code. For example, the character for the number 1 has the code 49, capital letter A has the code 65, and a blank space has the code 32. This encoding system not only lets a computer store a document as a series of numbers, but also lets it share such documents with other computers that use the ASCII system.

Authentication
Authentication is used by a server when the server needs to know exactly who is accessing their information or site. Authentication is used by a client when the client needs to know that the server is system it claims to be. In authentication, the user or computer has to prove its identity to the server or client. Usually, authentication by a server entails the use of a user name and password. Other ways to authenticate can be through cards, retina scans, voice recognition, and fingerprints. Authentication by a client usually involves the server giving a certificate to the client in which a trusted third party such as Verisign or Thawte states that the server belongs to the entity (such as a bank) that the client expects it to. Authentication does not determine what tasks the individual can do or what files the individual can see. Authentication merely identifies and verifies who the person or system is.

Authorization
Authorization is a process by which a server, or a general system, determines if the client has permission to use a resource or access a file. Authorization is usually coupled with authentication so that the server/system has some concept of who the client is that is requesting access. The type of authentication required for authorization may vary; passwords may be required in some cases but not in others. In some cases, there is no authorization; any user may be use a resource or access a file simply by asking for it. Most of the web pages on the Internet require no authentication or authorization.

AWS
A business unit of Amazon that provides multiple cloud services. AWS operates physical locations all over the world.

BaaS
Backup as a Service (a type of cloud service that is dedicated to backup purposes).

Backslash
Backslash is a character heavily used in computing and created by Bob Bemer in 1960. The backslash is a very popular character also used in different areas and called backward slash, downward slash, reverse solidus, etc. The backslash is depicted as . The backslash is created after the forward-slash and became popular with the popularity of the Microsoft MS-DOS operating systems.

Backup
A data backup is the act of archiving or copying files for the purpose of being able to restore them at a later date in case of data corruption or loss.

Backup Policy
The processes and procedures for ensuring that adequate types of backups are made, including periodic testing of those restoration processes.

Backup Software
Computer software applications that are used for performing the backing up of data.

Bandwidth
Bandwidth is a term used to express the total capacity of network transmission in a single second. It provides the maximum rate of the data transfer for a given path or connection in the computer network. Bandwidth also called Network Bandwidth, Data Bandwidth, or Digital Bandwidth where generally all of them refer to the same term bandwidth. As a rate or network capacity, term bandwidth can be expressed by using different rate or capacity units. The used bandwidth unit is mainly related to the given technology but following bandwidth units are popular today: Megabit Per Second or Mbit/s and Gigabit Per Second or Gbit/s.

Binary code
The most basic language a computer understands, it is composed of a series of 0s and 1s. The computer interprets the sequence of binary code to form numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and symbols. Along with being the most basic form of code, binary also represents the smallest amount of data that flows through all of the various complex hardware and software systems handling today’s data resources and assets. The smallest amount of data is called a bit, and is represented by either a one or a zero.

Bit
The smallest piece of computer information, either the number 0 or 1. In short they are called binary digits.

Boot Sector Virus
Boot Sector Virus mainly resides in the master boot record MBR of the computer system or operating system. This means they are loaded during OS start and this makes them very hard to detect and remove. They are generally spread through removable media, CDROM, USB Drive, Floppy Disk.

Buffered
Data that is compiled but not made available until a later time.

Business Continuity
Tasks performed by businesses to ensure critical organizational functions are always “on”. Business Continuity is not disaster recovery; Business Continuity are tasks performed 24/7 so that products and services continue to operate without fail, and are recoverable and “rebootable” if required to minimize downtime.

Client
A program that communicates with and requests data from a server.

Cloud Backup
A service that allows businesses or managed service providers to save data by transferring it over the internet or another network to an offsite storage system maintained by a third party.

Compliance
Conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy, standard or law. Many industries must comply with regulatory mandates around the roles, responsibilities and processes for data security.

Computer Virus
A computer virus is a special computer program that tries to replicate itself by modifying other computer programs and try to infect as much as it can. Computer viruses are unintended programs that generally run without user acceptance by hiding themselves. Computer viruses are created in order to gain admin control or use the target system resources in different ways to get gain. Viruses can infect in different ways like social engineering, USB drives, downloading and running unknown apps from the internet, etc.

Consumption-Based Pricing
A pricing model whereby the solution provider like an MSP charges its clients based on the amount of services the customer consumes, rather than a time-based or subscription fee.

CUDA
CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture), developed by NVIDIA, is a parallel computing platform and programming model that makes using a GPU for general purpose computing simple and elegant. In the computer game industry, GPUs are used for graphics rendering, and for game physics calculations (physical effects such as debris, smoke, fire, fluids); examples include PhysX and Bullet. CUDA has also been used to accelerate non-graphical applications in computational biology, cryptography and other fields by an order of magnitude or more.

Data Center
A facility containing a number of networked computers used for storing, processing and distributing enormous amounts of data. They include redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, military-grade security, and environmental controls.

Database
Collection of information organized so that a computer application can quickly access selected data. Website databases allow a website such as an e-commerce site, to store customer information and process credit card purchases.

Debug
To find and correct equipment defects or program malfunctions. It usually refers to examining and removing errors from a program's source code and this is done by developers, that will inspect the code searching for the root of the error/s.

Differential Backup
A cumulative backup of all changes made since the last full backup. The advantage to this is the quicker recovery time, requiring only a full backup and the latest differential backup to restore the system.

Direct Action Virus
Direct Action Virus is a computer virus type which is called a non-resident virus because it mainly runs on computer memory. This type of viruses generally store itself to the specific file types and starts itself after a computer reboot.

Disaster Recovery
DR is the process of recovering after a data disaster and restoring data to a useful state. An organization’s DR process should be created and documented in advance and audited regularly.

DoS (Denial of Service)
Short for denial-of-service attack. A DoS is an organized attempt to disrupt email or Web services by sending more messages or traffic than a server can handle, effectively shutting down a website or email service until the DoS messages stop.

Edge Transport Server (Microsoft Exchange)
An Exchange server which resides in the DMZ and is used for routing of incoming and outgoing emails. The Edge Transport Server is typically not part of the Active Directory, although it may have a read-only snapshot. If the server has the edge transport role then it cannot have any other exchange roles.

Email Archiving
An application that integrates with an email server, such as G Suite Gmail or Microsoft Exchange Server, to replicate, index and make messages (and their attachments, calendars and tasks) easily searchable. Safeguarding critical company data, compliance, record retention and setting up legal holds for litigation are common reasons for needing email archiving.

Encryption
Encryption involves the process of transforming data so that it is unreadable by anyone who does not have a decryption key. The Secure Shell (SSH) and Socket Layer (SSL) protocols are usually used in encryption processes. The SSL/TLS drives the secure part of "https://" sites used in e-commerce sites, banking; today almost every web site available on Internet is using SSL/TLS protocol to protect traffic between endpoints. All data in SSL/TLS transactions is encrypted between the client (browser) and the server (web server) before the data is transferred between the two. All data in SSH sessions is encrypted between the client and the server when communicating at the shell. By encrypting the data exchanged between the client and server information like social security numbers, credit card numbers, and home addresses can be sent over the Internet with less risk of being intercepted during transit. Encryption should be used whenever people are giving out personal information to register for something or buy a product. Doing so ensures the person's privacy during the communication. Encryption is also often used when the data returned by the server to the client should be protected, such as a financial statement or test results.

Ephemeral key
Ephemeral means "lasting a very short time." In computing, an ephemeral object can be very useful: for instance, in cryptography an ephemeral key is a cryptographic key used only once and discarded very quickly, so it is generated for each execution of a key- establishment process and that meets other requirements of the key type (e.g., unique to each message or session). In some cases, ephemeral keys are used more than once within a single session (e.g., broadcast applications) where the sender generates only one ephemeral key pair per message, and the private key is combined separately with each recipient’s public key.

Explicit FTP over TLS
In Explicit FTP over TLS, the FTP Client sends a specific command AUTH TLS to the FTP Server to establish the secure TLS Connection. The default FTP Control channel port 21 is used for secure TLS communication. Initially FTP Client connects to the server. and the FTP Client explicitly requests TLS encryption to turn on. User credentials are sent securely encrypted over the network for authentication in explicit FTP over TLS.

Folder
A structure used for containing and organizing files, documents and software applications and even sub-folders. In some operating systems, it is called a directory. The term is most commonly used with graphical user interface operating systems. Most operating systems, upon right clicking the folder, provide information on the folder along with its properties. A Folder does not take any space, in size, on hardisks and other storage types, it is only a "virtual location" defined on the file system.

Free Software
Free software is copyright-free software, with no limitations or constraints, but might not be free in the sense that there’s no price attached to it. It can be modified and changed at the will of the user and this means that the user can make changes to the core elements of the program, re-write whatever they want, overwrite things, completely repurpose the program, fork it into new software, etc. This type of software is often called open-source software, or free and open-source software (FOSS).

Freeware
Software created by people who are willing to give it away for the satisfaction of sharing or knowing they helped to simplify other people's lives. It may be free-standing software, or it may add functionality to existing software. Freeware is a combination of the words "free" and "software" to mean “free software.” The term, therefore, refers to software programs that are 100% free of charge, no kind of fee required.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol for transferring copies of files from one computer to another remote system. An FTP client is a program that allows you to move files between computers. FTP was developed during the 1970s and 1980s to support file sharing on TCP/IP and older networks. The protocol follows the client-server model of communication.

Gigabit Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet is a speed definition for the Ethernet protocol which can provide 1-gigabit data transmission per second. 1 Gigabit is equal to the 1,000Mbps speed. Gigabit Ethernet also refers to an ethernet port which can provide 1-gigabit speed. Gigabit Ethernet is an established standard which is mainly described IEEE 1000Base-T (802.3ab) and later TIA 1000Base-TX is created which requires CAT6 cable to work in a reliable fashion.

Glitch
A glitch, in computing, refers to a small and fleeting error in a system that occurs due to unknown causes. While the actual cause of a glitch is unknown, it can potentially cause serious harm to the system, including power failure, temporary loss of service or data loss. There's a glitch in the etymology of glitch - the origins of the word are not known for sure, though it may derive from the Yiddish glitsh, meaning "slippery place."

GUI
Graphical User Interface, a system that simplifies selecting computer commands by enabling the user to point to symbols or illustrations (called icons) on the computer screen with a mouse. It is a visual representation of several textual actions presented to the user for easy interaction with the system. The communication is achieved, between user and machine, by interacting with "icons", "interactive text menus" and virtual bidimensional or tridimensional spaces rather than the usual text-based or command-based communication (GUI differs from CLI). While mouse and keyboard are sufficient for desktop computers, they do not work as well for mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets. Therefore, mobile operating systems are designed to use a touchscreen interface. Many mobile devices can now be controlled by spoken commands as well.

Hard copy
A paper printout of what has been prepared on the computer, for example by using a word processing software.

Hosting Services Provider
A Hosting Services Provider is an application service provider dedicated to providing hosting services. Typically operates a Web server farm, either at a data center or location facility. Basically, a hosting provider houses your website, while an ISP connects your web server to the rest of the Internet.

HTTP
HyperText Transfer Protocol.

Hypertext
A system for organizing text through links. Most Web pages include hypertext links to other pages at that site, or to other sites on the World Wide Web. Hypertext documents are interconnected by hyperlinks, which are typically activated by a mouse click, keypress set, or by touching the screen. Apart from text, the term "hypertext" is also sometimes used to describe tables, images, and other presentational content formats with integrated hyperlinks.

Implicit FTP over TLS
In Implicit FTP over TLS, there is no need for the FTP Client to send any command to turn on TLS security. In implicit FTP over TLS, TLS handshake must be negotiated before any FTP commands can be sent by the FTP client to the FTP Server. Encryption is automatically turned on after the FTP client connects to the FTP server. TCP port 990 to be used for encrypted connections. User credentials are sent securely encrypted over the network for authentication in implicit FTP over TLS also.

Journaling
Journaling is part of the email archiving process that lets users record a copy of, or journal, all email communications in their organization and send them to a dedicated mailbox on the same or different server(s). Journaling is simply a means of recording your users’ messages. Once you enable journaling on a server, you can then configure your server to forward journaled messages to the archiving. Journaling is important in order to ensure that all emails are archived, ensuring compliance. Journaling must be enabled for an organization’s email archiving efforts to be compliant.

Keystroke
Key is a single character in a keyboard which can be physical or virtual. Strike is the act of pressing or pushing something. Keystroke is the act of pressing a key in a keyboard where the keyboard can be a complete, traditional, or more specialized keyboard. Keystroke is a very frequent action of a computer or smartphone user. Generally, the keyboard is the most common and popular way to make input into the computer or smartphone.

Machine Learning
Aspects of artificial intelligence (AI) where machines learn from tasks performed and become more and more skilled over time.

Macro Virus
Macro Virus is created with some scripting language to run on the target operating system. Macro Virus can also run on different applications like Word, Presentation and Excel tools.

Malware
A rogue system-penetrating software designed to gain access to a computer, its databases, its network or its files.

Markup Language
A markup language is not a programming language. It's a series of special markings, interspersed with plain text, which if removed or ignored, leave the plain text as a complete whole. Most markup languages are human-readable because the annotations are written in a way to distinguish them from the text itself. Markup languages define the style and structure of a document so that a computer knows how you want that document to appear. Two common markup languages are HTML (HyperText Markup Language), that describes the structure of a web page and XML, that describes a particular type of data. Most markup languages are defined by an outside authority for use by many different people, usually by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium).

Memorized Secret Authenticators
A Memorized Secret authenticator, commonly referred to as a password or, if numeric, a PIN, is a secret value intended to be chosen and memorized by the user. Memorized secrets need to be of sufficient complexity and secrecy that it would be impractical for an attacker to guess or otherwise discover the correct secret value. A memorized secret is something you know.

Metadata
Essentially, metadata is data about data; metadata provides insights on what the data is about.

Microsoft Azure
Microsoft Azure is a cloud computing service that businesses can use to manage applications and services through a global network of managed data centers.

Microsoft Exchange
Microsoft Exchange Server is a product developed by Microsoft with features such as email, calendars, contacts and tasks that integrates with Microsoft Office online.

MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.

MSP
A managed service provider (MSP) provides IT services such as server, network, and specialized applications to end users and organizations. These services are managed by the service provider and either hosted remotely in the cloud or on premise.

Network
A group of interconnected computer systems that can exchange data.

Overwrite Virus
Overwrite Virus is a simple virus where it simply deletes or overwrites to the existing files. The destruction of this virus is very high because it will delete all data, files, and folders instantly without providing time to take against the action.

PaaS
Platform-as-a-service – a cloud computing environment where developers can manage online applications.

Phishing
A form of identity theft in which a scammer uses an authentic-looking email, text message, or website notification to trick recipients into giving out sensitive personal information.

Polymorphic Virus
Polymorphic Virus is like a biological virus that can change its structure and behavior. This type of computer virus is very different to detect and remove because of its multiple type views.

Predictive Analysis
Analysis within big data that helps predict future behaviors.

Private Cloud
Term for a hosting architecture designed for a limited number of users behind a secure firewall and supporting infrastructure.

Ransomware
Ransomware is a type of malicious software code designed to block access to a computer system or personal data file until a sum of money is paid.

Resident Virus
Resident Virus is the opposite of the Direct Action Virus where it stores and hides into different paths. They are hard to find and remove.

REST API
Representational State Transfer. REST is an architecture style for designing networked applications.

Server
A computer or virtual cloud devise that controls requests made to it by a client programs.

Space (Whitespace) Character
In computing the whitespace character is used to express that represents horizontal and vertical single character space which is empty. The whitespace is called as space in short. The white comes from that the space is not filled any color or any pattern. Most of the computer physical and software keyboards provides the space character. ASCII characters are separated into different categories called Control Characters, Printable Characters, Extended Characters, etc. As it can be printed the whitespace or space character is categorized as printable characters. The ASCII code of the space is 32 which has the symbol U+0020. The space character also expressed as a binary value 0010 0000.

Spacefiller Virus
Spacefiller Virus is also called as Cavity Virus where it will fill up empty disk spaces. This type of computer virus does not cause any damage to the system. By only using empty sections of a file, the virus can infect a file without the size of the file changing, making it more difficult to detect.

Spoofing
The act of changing the sender’s name in an email message so that it looks as if it came from a different address.

SQL
A programming language for retrieving data from a relational database.

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

Tiered Storage
An approach to managing data that can save organization money by only using the fastest storage devices, such as SSD, for data that a firm actively uses, and utilizing less expensive platforms such as the cloud to store archival or backup data.

Virtual Private Server (VPS)
A virtual machine sold as a service by an Internet hosting providers and running its own copy of an operating system and software.

Virus
Malicious computer code designed to alter or take over a software program, commandeer a computer or impersonate a network to destroy data, steal information, or perform other unseemly tasks.

VMDK (Virtual Machine Disk)
A VMDK file format is the container of Virtual Hard Disk drives that are used by virtual machines such as VMware Workstation and VirtualBox. A VMDK is a disk image file that was developed by VMware for their own virtual products.
Summary
Article Name
Computer Glossary
Description
A collection of computing terms, for a quick reference and to know a bit more about protocols, acronyms and more computing related words and expressions.
Author
Publisher Name
Heelpbook.net